A person or group who are directly or indirectly benefitting from the resilient features implemented by the project.

Built Infrastructure

The physical systems, facilities and assets that deliver essential functions and services (i.e. provide, protect or connect) to our society and communities. This includes buildings, transport infrastructure including roads, rail, airports and ports, energy infrastructure including generation and transmission systems, communication networks and water and wastewater systems.

Cascading Risks

A chain of causality that emerges when hazards, risks and accumulated vulnerabilities connect across multiple scales to produce a disaster. Cascading events may begin in small areas but can intensify and spread to influence larger areas. e.g., flooding and landslides that occur after rain over wildfires.

Deep Uncertainty

Consideration of resilience to risks that cannot be predicted or avoided and therefore cannot be assessed or modeled. See more explanation on the Resilience Shift website.

Diverse/Comprehensive Stakeholder Engagement

Ensuring that when stakeholders are identified and evaluated, the process is systematic and inclusive and ensures representation across the relevant population(s), rather then closed, inaccessible or selective and exclusionary processes.

Energy-related Component

A part of the project which is related to generating, using, distributing, or saving energy.

Energy Resilience

The ability of the energy system as a whole to reduce the impact of shocks and stresses, including the capacity to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and rapidly recover from such events and to transform where necessary.


These can be physical, social, or economic acute disasters or chronic challenges – caused as a result of natural processes or human activity. More generally, they can be categorized shocks or stresses – direct or indirect.


The dependency or connectivity of two or more components or systems upon one another.

Nature Positive

A project approach which uses a model based on regeneration, resilience, and recirculation – not destruction and pollution. For example, the project: enriches biodiversity, stores carbon, purifies water and reduces pandemic risk. In short, a nature positive approach enhances the resilience of our planet and our societies.

Negative Impacts

Unintended harmful effect on an infrastructure system or assets, caused because of the implementation of resilient solutions or approaches.


The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience.

Safe Failure

Failure of a system component that does not have the potential to compromise the safety of the wider system and/or leave the system in a dangerous or fail-to-function state.

Scale for Further Impact

Increasing the impact of a solution to meet identified needs and increase resilience for a greater number of people and/or more vulnerable communities.


These are defined as acute natural and human-caused disasters. Can be categorised as direct shocks e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, and cyber-attacks. Can also be categorised as indirect shocks, caused by systematic interdependencies across physical, environmental, and human domains e.g., long-term power outage or an economic collapse.


A person or group with an interest, investment, or concern regarding the implementation of the resilient features or the wider project.


These are defined as chronic challenges to natural and human systems. They can be split into two categories: direct stresses and indirect stresses. Direct stresses could be physical or social e.g., extreme temperature fluctuations or a declining population. Indirect stresses are caused by systematic interdependencies across physical, environmental, and human domains e.g., water insecurity, poor regulatory environment, or inadequate education systems.


Component of the infrastructure system or asset, which are identified as having the potential to react adversely during the occurrence of a hazardous event

Vulnerable Communities/Populations

The propensity of a community or population to be adversely affected as a result of sensitivity and capacity to cope and adapt, which is often a result of economic, social, cultural, environmental, institutional, political, physical, or psychological factors.

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